By Bernard Weiner
For decades i've got had the gnawing wish to show the extensive motivational sig nificance of the attributional perception that i've got espoused and to give totally the argument that this framework has earned a rightful position along different top theories of motivation. moreover, fresh investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of impact, hence offering the impetus to embark upon a close dialogue of emotion and to explain the relation among emotion and motivation from an attributional viewpoint. The presentation of a unified concept of motivation and emotion is the aim of this e-book. My extra particular goals within the chapters to persist with are to: 1) define the elemental princi ples that i feel represent an enough idea of motivation; 2) express what I understand to be the conceptual contributions of the viewpoint encouraged by means of my col leagues and me; three) Summarize the empirical family members, achieve a few definitive con clusions, and indicate the extra equivocal empirical institutions according to hypotheses derived from our specific attribution conception; and four) make clear questions which were raised approximately this notion and supply new fabric for nonetheless additional scrutiny. In so doing, the development blocks (if any) laid down by means of the attributional con ception could be without difficulty pointed out and unknown juries of current and destiny friends can then higher confirm the price of this clinical product.
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Extra resources for An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion
For ease of presentation, I will often discuss causes as though they were dichotomously categorized. Since the early 1950s, but particularly after 1965, psychologists have embraced an internal-external distinction. Collins, Martin, Ashmore, and Ross (1973) pointed out that two different topics are subsumed within this classification: 1. The extent to which behavior is a function of internal versus external determinants; and The Logical Analysis of Causal Structure 45 2. Beliefs among persons regarding internal versus external determinants of action.
Thus, Weiner et a1. (1971) were more guilty Other Other Teachers Teachers College students Cooper & Burger (1980) Burger, Cooper, & Good (1982) Anderson (1983a) Willson & Palmer (1983) Bar-Tal, Goldberg, & Knaani (1984) Other First- through fifth -graders Frieze & Snyder (1980) Self Self College students Seventh-graders Other Self College students Elig & Frieze (1979) Academic test Hypothetical academic test, art project, sports, and game School performance of students School performance of students Variety of hypothetical situations School exam Anagrams Hypothetical school and game performance Self and other Task Perspective College students Subjects Frieze (1976) Experiment Table 2-2.
Coding of Verbalizations The difficulties of documenting spontaneous attributional activity in everyday life were previously discussed. In spite of such obstacles, one ambitious study has been reported that unobtrusively recorded verbal interactions (Nisbett, Harvey, & Wilson, 1979; report in Nisbett & Ross, 1980). Nisbett et al. (1979) "bugged" 13 "haphazardly selected" conversations that included participants ranging from students to senior citizens. Nisbett and Ross (1980) summarized that: Statements expressing or requesting causal analysis were remarkably frequent, accounting for 15 percent, on the average, of all utterances.
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