By Roberta Ulrich

When the U.S. executive ended its dating with dozens of local American tribes and bands among 1953 and 1966, it was once undertaking an enormous social scan. Congress enacted this system, referred to as termination, within the identify of “freeing” the Indians from govt regulations and bettering their caliber of existence. besides the fact that, elimination the federal prestige of greater than 9 dozen tribes around the state plunged lots of their approximately 13,000 contributors into deeper degrees of poverty and eroded the tribal people’s experience of local identification. starting in 1973 and increasing over a twenty-year interval, the terminated tribes, one after the other, persuaded Congress to revive their ties to the government. still, lots harm have been performed that even this day the restored tribes fight to beat the issues created via these terminations a part century ago.
 
Roberta Ulrich presents a concise assessment of all of the terminations and restorations of local American tribes from 1953 to 2006 and explores the iconic coverage implications for local peoples. this can be the 1st ebook to contemplate all of the terminations and restorations within the 20th century as a part of carrying on with coverage whereas detailing a few of the person tribal changes. Drawing from Congressional documents, interviews with tribal participants, and different basic assets, Ulrich delves into the reasons and results of termination and recovery from either sides.

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26 That same year Indian Commissioner Dillon S. ” Watkins brought up the tax issue at every hearing he conducted. ”27 Those few members of Congress who took an interest in Indian issues had varied motivations for ending Indian programs. Some wanted to get Indian land onto state tax rolls. Some looked at tribally owned property and saw shades of communism. These people considered such community ownership positively un-American. Communism, in the form of ideology and a country — the Soviet Union — had replaced fascism, in the form of the Axis nations, as America’s perceived enemy in the late 1940s and 1950s.

And couldn’t the problems have been foreseen? The answer to the second question is yes. The answer to the first is more complicated. On the surface the Menominee Tribe was wealthy. It owned one of the most productive pine forests in the country; its timber was valued at $36 million. Tribal logging and mill operations provided enough money that the tribe paid almost entirely for its own services, including the salaries of five dozen federal employees who managed the reservation. In 1953 the federal government paid only $95,000 for roads, blister rust control, and maintenance of federal buildings and $50,000 for education under the Johnson-O’Malley Act, which provides federal payments to school districts that educate reservation children.

2 The Menominees had long wanted more control of their own activities including the timber and sawmill operations that paid most of the cost of operating the reservation. Before declaring their independence, however, the Indians wanted to invest in improving the business and their reservation’s infrastructure. They were thinking long term. ” 22 Breaking the Ties In 1951 the Menominees won a multimillion-dollar settlement from the federal government for mismanagement of the tribe’s rich pine forest during the early years of the twentieth century.

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