By Stuart A. Rice, Aaron R. Dinner

The Advances in Chemical Physics series—the leading edge of study in chemical physics

The Advances in Chemical Physics sequence presents the chemical physics and actual chemistry fields with a discussion board for severe, authoritative reviews of advances in each region of the self-discipline. choked with state of the art study said in a cohesive demeanour no longer chanced on in other places within the literature, every one quantity of the Advances in Chemical Physics sequence bargains contributions from the world over well known chemists and serves because the ideal complement to any complex graduate category dedicated to the examine of chemical physics.

This quantity explores:

  • keep an eye on of Quantum Phenomena (Constantin Brif, Raj Chakrabarti, and Herschel Rabitz)

  • Crowded fees in Ion Channels (Bob Eisenberg)

  • Colloidal Crystallization among and 3 Dimensions (H. Lowen, E.C. Oguz, L. Assoud, and R. Messina)

  • Statistical Mechanics of beverages and Fluids in Curved area (Gilles Tarjus, FranCois Sausset, and Pascal Viot)

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Extra resources for Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 148

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QOCT can also be formulated for open systems with nonunitary dynamics [128, 251–258]. For example, for a quantum system coupled to a Markovian environment, the Liouville–von Neumann equation (12) must be satisfied. , for observable control) J˜ = J[ρ(·), σ(·), ε(·)] has the form T J˜ = Tr [ρ(T ) ] − 0 T α(t)ε2 (t)dt − 0 Tr σ † (t) d + iL ρ(t) dt dt (27) Here, L is the Liouville superoperator (the generator of the dynamical semigroup), and an auxiliary density matrix σ(t) is a Lagrange multiplier employed to enforce satisfaction of Eq.

In numerical optimizations, there is practically no difference in effort between computing the expectation value of an observable, the density matrix, or the evolution operator. In the laboratory, however, it is much more difficult to estimate a quantum state or, even more so, the evolution operator than to measure the expectation value of an observable. Moreover, state estimation error increases rapidly with the Hilbert space dimension [225, 364]. The very large number of measurements required for accurate quantum state/process tomography [229–232] renders (at least presently) the use of adaptive laboratory methods for state/evolution-operator control rather impractical.

AFC of the retinal molecule in bacteriorhodopsin (from the all-trans to the 13-cis state) was demonstrated by Miller and coworkers [537]. This experiment employed both phase and amplitude modulation of femtosecond laser pulses and operated in the weak-field regime. By using optimally shaped pulses, it was possible to enhance or suppress the quantity of molecules in the 13-cis state by about 20%, relative to the yield observed using a transform-limited pulse with the same energy. They further explored the mechanism of coherent control of retinal photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin using time- and frequency-resolved pump-probe measurements [538].

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