By D. S. Ballantine Jr., Robert M. White, S. J. Martin, Antonio J. Ricco, E. T. Zellers, G. C. Frye, H. Wohltjen
Written through an interdisciplinary staff of specialists from either and academia, Acoustic Wave Sensors presents an in-depth examine the present nation of acoustic wave units and the scape in their use in chemical, biochemical, and actual measurements, in addition to in engineering functions. due to the inherent interdisciplinary purposes of those units, this booklet could be helpful for the chemist and biochemist drawn to the use and improvement of those sensors; engineer occupied with their layout and development; the chemical engineer and the biotechnologist attracted to utilizing them for strategy tracking and keep an eye on; and the sensor group at huge.
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Extra resources for Acoustic Wave Sensors: Theory, Design, and Physico-Chemical Applications
55 indicates the relationship between wave attenuation and power dissipation in the medium: attenuation is one-half the ratio of power dissipated to power transmitted by the wave. Note that in the derivations of this section, velocity and attenuation changes depend on ratios of energy and power, not on absolute levels. Consequently, in the small-signal limit, velocity and attenuation changes are independent of wave amplitude. It will be seen in Chapter 3 that many perturbations affect wave propagation.
24 yields 3 ~. 11), the presence of an additional term involving the electrical potential ~b is apparent. This term may be considered as a source term responsible for the generation of an acoustic wave by an applied, time-varying electrical potential, s Conversely, the wave displacements generate an accompanying electrical potential through which the piezoelectric wave can be electrically detected. 28 represents three equations in four unknowns: ul, u2, u3, and ~b. 26 by noting that in a region with no free charges, the electrical displacement is solenoidal (V • D = 0).
36) Ell Thus, the electrical potential is proportional to mechanical displacement, having a value of ~b = ( - 6 . 3 x 109 V/m)u 3 for ZnO; a shear displacement of 10 ,/k thus leads to a potential of - 6 . 3 volts. 7. The electric field can be found by differentiating the potential: Ex = -Otk/Ox = -jktb. This leads to an electric field described by jkex5 E = --u3x. 7. 2 ENERGY DENSITY AND POWER FLOW Because passage of an elastic wave causes time-harmonic deformation o f a crystal, each unit volume through which the wave passes has time-varying potential (strain) energy and kinetic energy.
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