By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass comparable to cellulose and chitin to chemical compounds. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to beneficial compounds has attracted world wide curiosity for construction sustainable societies. First, the present state of affairs of this sizzling study sector has been summarized good within the common advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to familiarize yourself with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding creation of glucose from cellulose by utilizing an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that's one of many optimum yields ever said. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that vulnerable acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that's markedly diversified from said catalytic structures that require powerful acids. moreover, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been constructed. the mix of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis allows the creation of N-acetylated monomers in strong yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic platforms established during this thesis are exact within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic reports according to characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts in the course of the reactions. the implications should be priceless for readers to layout and improve new catalysts and response systems.
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Extra resources for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
4 Objectives of This Thesis Work 29 Fig. 4 Objectives of This Thesis Work As described above, the hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose is one of the main target reactions in bioreﬁnery. H2SO4 and cellulase enzymes have been used for the depolymerization even in commercial scales, but their complete recovery requires unproﬁtable processes. Hence, to date, heterogeneous catalysts have attracted great interest due to their ease of separation and reuse. In this area, most researchers focus on strong acid catalysts, namely sulfonated materials, and indeed they efﬁciently hydrolyze pure cellulose to glucose in 75–92 % yields as described in Sect.
The base polymer chloromethyl polystyrene, known as Merriﬁeld’s Fig. 16 Structure of CP–SO3H. 2 Cellulose 19 resin, easily undergoes SN2 reaction at a benzyl position as widely used for connecting peptides and proteins . Indeed, in their synthetic scheme of CP–SO3H, sulfanilic acid nucleophilically attacks a carbon atom at the benzyl position of Merriﬁeld’s resin to form a C–N covalent bond. Besides, leaching of both Cl‾ and SO24‾ species was detected by ion chromatography after hydrolysis of cellulose using CP–SO3H in the author’s test, and this was possibly due to SN2 reaction at the benzyl position of CP–SO3H by water molecules .
J Mol Catal A Chem 252(1):12–16 27. Cirtiu CM, Dunlop-Brière AF, Moores A (2011) Cellulose nanocrystallites as an efﬁcient support for nanoparticles of palladium: application for catalytic hydrogenation and Heck coupling under mild conditions. Green Chem 13(2):288–291 28. Yano H, Nakahara S (2008) High strength material using cellulose microﬁbrils. US Patent 7,378,149 29. Kondo T, Morita M, Hayakawa K, Onda Y (2008) Wet pulverizing of polysaccharides. US Patent 7,357,339 30. Zhao H, Kwak JH, Wang Y, Franz JA, White JM, Holladay JE (2006) Effects of crystallinity on dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulose ball-milling study.
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