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The energy of a photon is given by the Planck relationship E ϭ h␯ ϭ hc/ ␭, where h is Planck’s constant, ␯ is the frequency, c is the velocity of light, and ␭ is the wavelength. The photons of radio waves and even of visible light are not energetic enough to ionize a gas. To get some feeling of the energies involved, the energy of a 1 GHz radio wave photon is 4 ȐeV. 5 eV. Thus, radio waves and visible light are not ionizing radiation, and ionization chambers are not suitable for detecting them.

23. H. Soltwisch, Current distribution in a tokamak by FIR, Rev. Sci. , 57: 1939–1950, 1986. 24. F. M. , Magnetic field pitch angle diagnostic using the motional Stark effect, Rev. Sci. , 61: 2914–2919, 1990. 25. B. W. , Direct measurement of the radial electric field in tokamak plasmas using the Stark effect, Phys. Rev. , 79: 2694–2697, 1997. 26. N. J. , Spectroscopy for Impurity Control in ITER, in P. E. Stott, G. Gorini, and E. ), Diagnostics for Experimental Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors, New York: Plenum, 1996, pp.

2 MeV. Fission products that produce such gamma rays decay within a few months of a reactor shutdown. Thus, for a photoneutron source to be of use, the reactor must have been recently operated at full power for an extended time. There are several possible types of installed sources. One of the most common is plutonium–beryllium, or PuBe. The reaction is A PuBe source consists of a mixture of plutonium and beryllium powder that is doubly encased in stainless steel.

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